|About the book|
The stasis approach pioneered by Fahnestock and Secor distinguishes among four basic questions that arguments are written to answer:
What is it? (Definition arguments)
How did it get that way? (Causal arguments)
Is it good or bad? (Evaluation arguments)
What should we do about it? (Proposal arguments)
These four questions, now standard in many argument texts, give students a constructive, engaging way to analyze arguments by other writers and to construct their own arguments.
|About the author|
Jeanne Fahnestock is a Professor in the Department of English at the University of Maryland, College Park. She received her Ph.D. from the University of London in 1970. In addition to A Rhetoric of Argument, she has written Figures of Argument: Studies in the Rhetoric of Science (Oxford Univ. Press, 1996) and co-authored (with Marie Secor) Readings in Argument (Random House, 1985). She has also authored 25 articles, book chapters, and reviews appearing in such journals as Nineteenth-Century Fiction, College Composition and Communication, and Victorian Studies. Her teaching awards include the College of Arts and Humanities Teaching Award (student nominated) 1991 and the Outstanding Educator Award (1994).
Marie Secor is an Associate Professor in the English Department at Penn State-University Park. She received her BA from the College of New Rochelle and her MA and Ph.D. from Brown University. In addition to A Rhetoric of Argument, Secor has co-authored Readings in Argument (Random House, 1985) with Jeanne Fahnestock, and The Return of the Good Soldier: Ford Madox Ford and Violet Hunt's 1917 Diary (University of Victoria, 1983) with Robert Secor. She is co-editor with Davida Charney, of Constructing Rhetorical Education (Southern Illinois University Press, 1992). She is also the author of many articles on rhetorical history and theory and the rhetoric of literary argument. Secor has won numerous awards for her teaching and research: the Liberal Arts Teaching Award, Graduate School Teaching Award (1996), Provost's Award for Collaborative Teaching, Golden Key Faculty Award, Pan-Hellenic Council award, Alumni Teaching Fellow Award, Penn State (1990), and the Schreyer Honors College Faculty Fellowship (1998).
|Table of contents|
Part One: Reading and Writing Arguments
1 An Introduction to the Study of Argument
In the Media: "We Encourage You to Vote Today," The Indianapolis Star
An Argument Is Addressed to a Specific Audience at a Particular Time.
An Argument Wants Something from Its Audience.
An Argument Gives Its Audience Reasons for What It Wants.
Not All the Reasons Are Stated Openly.
Arguments Are Also Supported by Calling on Readers? Attitudes and Feelings.
The Source of an Argument Matters.
A Counter-Argument Is Always in the Background
Expanding Your Definition of Argument
Contexts for Argument
The Rhetorical Situation
2: Building the Case: Logos
In the Media: An Ad for Purina One Beef Jerky Strips
Analyzing the Advertisement for Beef Jerky Strips
The Materials of Argument
Building the Logos
One-Part Argument: The Claim Alone
Two-Part Argument: The Enthymeme
Expanding Arguments: Branching Support
Expanding Arguments: Chains of Support
Combining Branching and Chaining
Writing Your Argument: Building an Argument from Claim-Reason Pairs
Expanding the Three-Part Argument: The Full Toulmin Model
Building Arguments with Other Positions in Mind
Writing Your Argument: Taking Account of Other Positions
The Building Blocks of Arguments: Values and Facts
Visual Rhetoric: Arguing with Images
Robert Samuelson, "The Specter of Global Aging" (Article with photo)
For You to Analyze:
Advertisement for Kleenex Cold Care
Barry R. McCaffrey, "Don?t Legalize Those Drugs"
3 Establishing Credibility and Appealing to Emotion: Ethos and Pathos
In the Media: "While the Children Sleep," A.M. Rosenthal
Analyzing ?While the Children Sleep?
The Elements of Ethos
Types of Ethos
Ethos and Pathos Combine in Identification
Establishing Ethos in Writing
The Intellectual Virtue of Reasonableness
The Overall Effects of Conviction and Moderation
Disclaimers: Don?t Get the Wrong Idea about Me or My Argument
Writing Your Argument: Establishing Your Ethos
Evoking Pathos in Argument
Choosing Words Carefully
Choosing Powerful Examples
Writing Your Argument: Evoking Pathos
Visual Rhetoric: Emotion in Images
Jack Ohman, "Twin Towers" (Political cartoon)
For You to Analyze:
Audrey Rock-Richardson, "Pay Your Own Way! (Then Thank Mom)"
Leonard Pitts, "A Letter to the Terrorists"
For You to Write
4: Generating the Argument: Questions and Claims
In the Media: "Drug Tests Backed for Broader Pool of Students," St. Louis Post-Dispatch
Analyzing ?Drug Tests Backed for Broader Pool of Students?
Finding Issues to Argue
Answering Questions with Claims
The Four Basic Questions
The First Question: What Is It?
The Second Question: How Did It Get That Way?
The Third Question: Is It Good or Bad?
The Fourth Question: What Should We Do about It?
Warrants and the Four Basic Questions
Combining the Questions
Finding the Key Questions at Issue
The Basic Questions as a Research Strategy
Writing Your Argument: Using the Basic Questions to Organize Your Research
Reading for Questions:
Kathryn Tolbert, "Japan?s Modern Women Living Single and Loving It"
Josette Shiner, "Crucifix Can Reflect on Good Moral Character of School"
Bonnie Erbe, "It Would Drive Away Students"
For You to Write: A ?What?s at Issue? Paper
5 Expressing Appeals: Language and Voice
In the Media: "Subsidizing Illegal Residents," Ward Connerly
Choosing a Voice
Using I or Not Using I
Using You or Not Using You
Dialogue Building with Questions
Using We or Not Using We
Other Ways of Creating and Appealing to Groups
Putting the Opposition in a Group
Using an Impersonal Voice
Writing Your Argument: Finding an Effective Stance
Visual Rhetoric: Visuals Involve the Viewer
"I Want You for the U.S. Army," (Recruiting poster)
For You to Analyze:Shawntelle Santas, "The Face of Welfare"
Patricia J. Williams, "Better Safe . . . ? Diary of a Mad Law Professor"
Part Two: Types of Arguments
6: Definition: What Is It?
In the Media: "Scientists Determine Chimpanzees Have `Culture?"
Analyzing ?Scientists Determine Chimpanzees Have `Culture??
Definition: Arguing about the Nature of Things
Types of Definition Arguments
Constructing a Definition Argument
Support by Example
Support by Definition
Support by Comparison
Writing Your Own Definition Argument: Answering the Question ?What Is It??
Drafting Your Definition Argument
Reviewing and Revising Your Definition
Visual Rhetoric: Neil Armstrong Walks on the Moon (photo)
Jill Henkel, "Cheerleading: A Sport or an Activity?"
Michael Kelley, "One Vet?s Mission to Set the Record Straight"
E. J. Dionne, "The Myth of the Fading Family"
Richard Keller Simon, Much Ado about Friends: What Pop Culture Offers Literature
7: Causal Argument: How Did It Get That Way?
In the Media: "Harness Fire? Mother Nature Begs to Differ"
Causal Arguments: Determining Why or How Something Happened
Constructing a Causal Argument
Framing Narratives for Causal Analysis
Considering Other Causal Models
Fitting a Narrative to a Purpose
Establishing Causal Relationships
Supporting a Causal Relationship
Other Types of Causal Arguments
Visual Rhetoric: Cause and Effect for the Eye
"Crude Male Death Rate for Lung Cancer in 1950 and Per Capita Consumption of Cigarettes in 1930 in Various Countries" (Line graph)
"20-year Lag Time Between Smoking and Lung Cancer" (Line graph)
Writing Your Own Causal Argument: Answering the Question ?How Did It Get That Way??
Drafting Your Causal Argument
Reviewing and Revising Your Causal Argument
Hinda Gonchor "Spandex Nation"
David Pitt "Beer Taxes Reduce STD Rates"
James Glanz and Eric Lipton, "Expert Report Disputes U.S. on Trade Center Collapse"
Samuel Casey Carter "Successful Inner City Schools Share Common Traits"
8: Evaluation: Is It Good or Bad?
In the Media: "Why Generation X Is Coming Home to Morality," Stacey Felzenberg
Evaluation: Determining the Value of Something
Constructing a Sound Evaluation
Supporting Criteria with a Specific Audience in Mind
Possible Subjects for Evaluation
The Evaluation as Comparison
Visual Rhetoric: The Eye of a Dying Whale (Photo)
Close-up of the Eye of a Dying Whale (Photo)
Writing Your Own Evaluation: Answering the Question ?Is It Good or Bad??
Drafting Your Evaluation
Reviewing and Revising Your Evaluation\
Nicholas D. Kristof, "Harvest the Whales" and Letters to the Editor in Response to "Harvest the Whales"
Des Moines Register Editorial Board, "Leave the Flicks Alone"
Jonathan V. Last, "The Best"
David Ramsay Steele, "Yes, Gambling Is Productive and Rational"
9: Proposals: What Should We Do about It?
In the Media: "Hollywood Simply Can No Longer Abdicate Its Responsibility to Kids"
Analyzing ?Hollywood Simply Can No Longer Abdicate Its Responsibility to Kids?
Proposals: Arguing for Action
Convincing an Audience
Constructing a Full Proposal
Evaluating the Consequences
Feasibility: ?It Can Be Done?
Anticipating Difficult Questions
Visual Rhetoric: Before and After: The Visual Proposal
Advertisement for Allegra-D (Advertisement)
Writing Your Own Proposal: Answering the Question ?What Should We Do about It??
Drafting Your Proposal
Reviewing and Revising Your Proposal
Michael Novak, "With Liberty and Prayer for All"
Emily Lesk, "My 60-Second Protest from the Hallway"
John Solomon, "Vote, or Else"
Leon Botstein, "Let Teenagers Try Adulthood"
Part Three: Researching Arguments
10: Finding Sources to Support Your Claim
An Overview of Sources
Primary Sources That Serve as Direct Evidence in Different Fields
Secondary Sources That Offer Analysis, Interpretation, Evaluation, and Commentary
Sources That Help Answer Specific Questions
Searching for Sources by Keyword
Searching for Library Sources
Searching for Electronic Sources
Evaluating Internet Sources
Web Pages of Interest to Researchers
11: Using Sources to Support Your Claim
Taking Effective Notes
When to Document Your Sources
Citing Sources in Your Paper
Using MLA Style
A Student Paper in MLA Style: "Add a New Clause to the American Society for Interior Designers? Code of Ethics," Meaghan O?Keefe
Using APA Style
A Student Paper in APA Style: "Manic Depression: A Diagnostic Challenge," Daniel M. Pulver
Part Four: An Anthology of Arguments
12: The Promise and Perils of Globalization
Aaron Lukas, "I Love Global Capitalism--and I?m under 30"
Michelle Martin, "French Food vs. Fast Food"
Amartya Sen, "A World Not Neatly Divided"
Paul Ehrlich, "A New Ethics for a New World"
Stanley Kurtz, "Veil of Fears"
Wole Soyinka, ?Beauty and the Beast of Intolerance?
13: The Revolution in Biotechnology
Wesley J. Smith, "Closing in on Cloning"
Virginia I. Postrel, "Fatalist Attraction"
Council for Biotechnology Information, ?Growing More Food?
Jeremy Rifkin, "A Personal Note"
George W. Bush, ?Remarks by the President on Stem Cell Research?
Francis Fukuyama, ?The Political Control of Biotechnology?
14: The Challenge of Dealing with Juvenile Crime
Barbara Lerner, "The Killer Narcissists"
Alfred Blumstein, "Violence by Young People: Why the Deadly Nexus?"
John R. Lion and Jonas R. Rappeport, "They Do What They See: That?s Why We should Tone Down Violent Images"
Lynne Lamberg, "Preventing School Violence: No Easy Answers"
Michael P. Brown, "Juvenile Offenders: Should They Be Tried in Adult Courts?"
Bob Herbert, "Injustice and Ice Cream"
15: The Meaning of Sports in Our Society
Paul Auster, "Where Have All the Young Men Gone?"
Linda Robertson, "Celebration or Exploitation? Women Athletes Pose Question"
George J. Bryjak, "Don?t Call Jocks Sports `Heroes?"
Joseph H. Brown, ?What Tiger Does Best Is Golf?
S. L. Price, "The Indian Wars"
Andrea Woo, ?Polls Apart?
Rebecca L. Adamson, "Mascot Supporters Insult Native Peoples"
16: Public Taste
Jamie Chan, Darren Joe, Jung Ju, ?Statement Concerning the Recent Actions of Abercrombie and Fitch?
Elizabeth Austin, "A Small Plea to Delete a Ubiquitous Expletive"
John A. Yahner, ?A Parent?s View?
Jenny Leete, ?Music Censorship Limits Rights?
Felicity Barringer, "Breaking a Taboo, Editors Turn to Images of Death"
Daniel Harris, "The Kitschification of Sept. 11"
17: The Debate on the Meaning of the First Amendment
The First Ten Amendments to the Constitution
Clarence Page, ?Sometimes Freedom Is a Necessary Nuisance?
Julie Bosman, "The (No) Free Speech Movement"
Howard Troxler, "Once Nailed to the Door, Now Shuffled Out of Sight"
Linda Chavez, "The `Separation of Church and State? Myth"
Editorial, St Louis Post-Dispatch "Going Overboard" with Letters to the Editor in Response
Robin Charlow, "Free Speech in the Sky"